Volume #4, Issue #6

Date: October 1991

Jason Ohler, Director
Educational Technology Program
University of Alaska Southeast


In the industrial age, we go to school. In the information age, school can come to us. This is the message implicit in the media and movement of distance education.

Volume #4, Issue #6

Date: October 1991


Jason Ohler
Educational Technology Program Director
University of Alaska Southeast
11120 Glacier Highway
Juneau, Alaska 99801
Phone: 907-789-4538

Managing Editor

Jeanne Passin
University of Alaska Southeast
11120 Glacier Highway
Juneau, Alaska 99801
Phone: 907-789-4538

Technical Coordinator

Paul J. Coffin
716 Taschereau
Ste-Therese, Quebec
J7E 4E1
Phone: 514-430-0995

Hello, and thanks for your patience. As director of an Educational Technology Masters degree with an educational telecommunications emphasis, I made the decision this year that the Online Journal should involve students as much as possible. So, after identifying and training masters candidate Jeanne Passin, we are off and running. Jeanne will be with the Online Journal as managing editor for at least this semester and hopefully the entire academic year.

As always, we are interested in considering your contributions to the Journal. Please keep them short, a page or two.


  1. Project IDEALS : International Dimension in Education David Crookall, Director, crookall @ualvm.bitnet /ualvm.ua.edu.

  2. Report on the First Telecom Trapper's Rendezvous (excerpt) by Frank Odasz & Dave Hughes, bigsky!franko@csn.org

  3. Kids - 92 Newsletter by Odd de Presno, opresno@ulrik.uio.no

  4. DEONEWS Update by Morten Flate Paulsen, MFP101@PSUVM

  5. Announcements, Requests, and Reviews

    1. New List- CDROM in LAN Environment by Dan Lester, ALILESTE@IDBSU
    2. New List for Teachers of Japanese and Technology Specialists by tomita@vax001.kenyon.edu
    3. New On-Line News Service by Kim Smith SMITH@UMUC, Annenberg/CPB Project
    4. New Electronic Networking Journal by Joe Ryan, JORYAN@SUVM
    5. NativeNet: Announcing LISTSERV Archive From: Gary S. Trujillo, gst@gnosys.svle.ma.us
    6. Book Review of Distance Education : The Foundations of Effective Practice by John Verduin & Thomas Clark by Greg Kearsley, KEARSLEY@GWUVM
    7. Job Announcement, Sydney, Australia From: Liz Parkinson lparkins@suna.mqcc.mq.oz.au
    8. Distance Education Query From: Ken Willing, sr_willing@vaxa.mqcc.mq.oz.au

  6. DISTANCE EDitorial: An Overview of Distance Education Planning Jason Ohler, JFJBO@Alaska

  7. About the Journal


By: David Crookall

Project IDEALS

Promoting an International Dimension in Education via Active Learning and Simulation

A Rich Learning Experience

Project IDEALS is a computer-assisted learning environment based on multi-site, semester-long, socially-interactive simulations. Computer technologies allow distant teams to communicate, hold real-time teleconferences, and to obtain feedback on their performance and progress.

Project IDEALS is firmly based on the principles of experiential learning; it encourages students to become fully involved, motivates them to work hard, and helps them take responsibility for their own learning.


The central component of Project IDEALS is a large-scale simulation assisted by computers and telecommunications. Students take on the roles of high-level negotiators representing various countries at an international conference. The country teams are situated at different campuses (usually one team per campus) and communicate using computer networks and specialized simulation management software.


As a general rule, each team is made up of native and international students (usually 7 to 21 students per team). Most of the work is done within country teams, which may be sub-divided and organized into committees specializing, for example, in environmental protection, responsibility to future generations, or trade and development. Each group thus has ample opportunity to develop cross-cultural awareness and skills through interaction with others in their team. However, interaction with other teams, via telecommunication, also provides valuable intercultural contact.


The ultimate goal of each simulation is for teams to negotiate an agreement related to some international situation -- for example, to hammer out the text of a treaty governing the emissions of CFCs, the use of the ocean's resources, or the future of Antarctica. Scenarios may involve real or hypothetical countries and may take the form of an "Alternative World Forum" (in the spirit, for example, of The Other Economic Summit 'TOES').

A credit-bearing course can be set up especially for the simulation. Alternatively, an already established course can be used. A typical title for such a course might be "Cross-Cultural Communication and International Understanding".


In Project IDEALS, the experiential learning cycle is paramount, emphasizing the importance of regular and structured reflection on experience to convert it into learning, which in turn becomes the basis for further practical experience.

Group Facilitator and Training Workshop

A Group Facilitator (often a graduate teaching assistant) is assigned to each team and is supervised by a Site Coordinator (usually a faculty member). The Group Facilitator works closely with the team, providing support on all aspects of the simulation, both technical and personal.

In the semester prior to the simulation, both the Group Facilitator and the Site Coordinator attend a special two-day workshop*. This provides training in simulation procedures, group facilitation techniques, cross-cultural communication, international understanding, learning and group processes, debriefing methods and evaluation techniques, and using the computer technologies and telecommunications networks.

Further Information

For further information, please contact Catherine Schreiber-Jones, Assistant Director, or David Crookall, Director:
E-mail: crookall @ ua1vm.bitnet or ua1vm.ua.edu
cschreib @ ua1vm.bitnet or ua1vm.ua.edu

Project IDEALS
English/Morgan, Box 870244
University of Alabama
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
Telephone: 205-348-9494
Facsimile: 205-348-5298

From: David Crookall
Editor: Simulation & Gaming: An International MA-TESOL Prgrm % Journal (Sage)
Dir: Project IDEALS (FIPSE, DoE).
English/Morgan, Univ of Alabama
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0244, USA
Phones: 205-348-9494 (w), 205-752-0690 (h); (44) 305-889-352 (UK).
E-mail: crookall @ ua1vm.bitnet / ua1vm.ua.edu.
Fax: 205-348-5298
For Pr IDEALS: Catherine Schreiber-Jones, Asst Dir:
cschreib @ ua1vm


From: Frank Odasz and Dave Hughes

(This is an excerpt from a longer article. Feel free to email the authors for the full report.)

Report on the First Telecom Trapper's Rendezvous
June 21-22nd, 1991
Cody, Wyoming and the Shoshone National Forest

Everyone who attended the 1st Telecom Trapper's Rendezvous will have their own impressions of the event, which I leave them to report. As one of the three Telecom Trapper's Council members (Lester Santos of Wyoming and Frank Odasz of Montana being the other two) which organized the affair, I can hardly be objective. But I here will outline who came and what happened, for this event was consciously organized to break with the big- city 'conference' tradition, and operate on more levels than implied by the printed agenda.

The Rendezvous essentially proceeded through four phases. First was the all-day professional computer communications conference attended by 30 highly experienced, registered telecommunicators from east and west coasts, middle America, and overseas. Then there was an evening session for the above plus some local, relatively inexperienced community folks. The third phase was a daytime escape for all into the beauties and excitement of the natural surroundings, ending with a barbecue supper with entertainment deep in the national forest. The last phase was a solemn evening ceremony according to Indian traditions.

The two days operated on three levels.

First was the 'Rural Telecommunications' level where the telecom we are all used to was demonstrated and discussed - business, education, community - in its rural manifestations (Big Sky Telegraph, Big Horn BBS, Russell Country BBS, Old Colorado City Electronic Cottage.)

Second was the 'Western Culture' level, where online Native American and other art, cowboy poetry, and the potential for telecom technologies to represent the rich outdoor and western way of doing and seeing things, were discussed from the most fundamental technological to the most philosophical level. Naplps graphics, online access to art, the drawing and terminal programs for msdos and mac machines, UNIX access, conferencing, bbs, uucp, ufgated fidos, and internet were demonstrated.

Third was the 'trapper' symbolic level, which began with all seated in a circle and the council members opening things with their Indian walking staffs. During the daytime sessions all could gaze on the richly made Cherokee mandella, the scenes of Native Americans and Trappers, and experience the ambience of the room where the conference was held (Governor's Room in the 100 year old Irma Hotel) and the aroma from the sage that was placed everywhere. All this, plus the tasks individuals were assigned to help prepare for the final ceremony and the final pipe ceremony, gave everyone a sense of deep purpose.

One question was posed concerning what animal or bird we should adopt as our emblem. Frank Sr. suggested that there was a little known bird of the forest which hides all the time, whose voice is loud, and which seems to portray the way telecom trappers live: the Blackbilled Cuckoo. After a few laughs it was officially adopted.

When to permit anyone online to see the 'values' expressed by this band of telecom trappers was discussed. It was agreed their primary home should be on Big Horn BBS out of Cody, but they can be posted on other systems. Since some present were struck by the fact they may have not put enough thought into their expression, it was decided that everyone would have 'one moon' (28 days) to log on and refine their work, after which it will be public and may be distributed to other systems in order to spread the word of the Telecom Trapper's values. (307) 587-2510

After the final ceremony, in a few minutes in the dark things were packed up and everyone but one gutsy camper and myself were left. (Vera Bradova - who had a tiny one person tent to sleep in near her car in bear country)

I drove my computer camper away in the morning, which came up Rocky Mountain clean and clear, just as it has for tens of thousands of springtimes before, and will ten thousand years hence - no matter what I do or say. The best I can do is push back the forest and darkness for a little time, and use the power of the computer and telecom to hold it back - and be sure what goes on in the circle is good so long as I have any say in the matter.

Which is about all any of us can do.

Dave Hughes
Chief Guide
Telecom Trappers of 1991

Frank Odasz
Western MT College, Dillon
MT,59725 Voice:406-6837338
Fidonet: 1:346/3 Fax 406-6837493
Big Sky Telegraph-406-683-7680


KIDS-92 Newsletter #2
From: Odd de Presno,

The KIDS-92 Newsletter
A Global Dialog for Children 10-15 Years

The goal of KIDS-92 is to get as many 10-to-15-year-old children as possible involved in a GLOBAL dialog continuing until May 19th 1992. We want their responses to these questions:

  1. Who am I?
  2. What do I want to be when I grow up?
  3. How do I want the world to be better when I grow up?
  4. What can I do now to make this happen?

Here are some recent responses:

From Seoul (Korea):
  1. My name is Kim You-Jung. I'm 15 year old. I am a freshman at Jung Eui girls' High School in Seoul Korea. My course is commercial so I study technical function subjects. I like to read, design books and mystery novels and write a letter and draw pictures and listen to music.

  2. I hope to become a famous novelist. As a best writer I will plant "LOVE" in many people hearts


  3. As I grow up, I hope the world to be more calm and on very friendly terms among many countries. The world must not be conta- minated and racism also be disclaimed.

  4. Not to pollute the earth, I must not use bad chemical pro- duction. I hope to compose a good book to make a human race of different religions happy.

From N~un~oa (Chile):

  1. Me llamo Luci'a Egan~a Rojas, tengo 12 an~os y voy en 6. ba'sico del Colegio Altamira. Tengo una tortuga de agua y se llama Morla. Naci' en Alemania el 22 de Marzo de 1979. Tengo 6 hermanos (hombres) y ninguna hermana. Me vine de Alemania cuando teni'a 6 an~os. Mi grupo favorito es Juan Luis Guerra y 4.40, aunque tambie'n me gustan otros cantantes o grupas. Vivo con mi mama' y mi hermano (Daniel, uno de ellos).

  2. Cuando grande me gustari'a ser artista, actriz de Cine, teatro, televisio'n, modelo, pintora, foto'grafa, bailarina (de todo menos de Ballet), cantante y escultora, porque me encanta el arte. Tambie'n me gustari'a ser ecologista, porque hay que crear alguna conciencia para que el mundo no se reviente.

  3. Me gustari'a que la gente no sea tan antipacifista, ni tan antiecologista, que no haya pobreza, que la gente no contamine. Y que los humanos fueran felices.

  4. Hacer algo por la ecologi'a. Respetar ma's a la gente. En lo demas no creo que sirva mi ayuda.

Ojala' pudiera establecer correspondencia con ustedes, o con otros nin~os de mi edad. Me despido, Chao, Luci'a Egan~a Rojas, Roma'n Diaz 2251-E, N~un~oa, Santiago, Chile

From Kiev (Ukraine, USSR):

  1. My name is Alex Yankovski. My age is 13. I live in Kiev (Ukraine).

  2. When I grow up I want to be a programist.

  3. I want that never wars, that people of all over the world become friends.

  4. Now I can to write with children from others countries. I want to have many friends.

KIDS-92 progress report

Summer holidays on the northern hemisphere did not stop KIDS-92. Responses to the four basic questions continued to pour in from places like Tasmania and Melbourne (Australia), Manitoba, North York, and Toronto (Canada), Santiago (Chile), Gladsaxe (Denmark), Kyoto and Tokyo (Japan), Seoul (Korea), Knarvik, Bergen, and Eydehamn (Norway), Warsaw (Poland), Ohio, New York, Texas, and Washington (USA), and Kiev (Ukraine).

In KIDCAFE it was business as usual, even though the end of July was relatively quiet. Kids from Caecilienschule Oldenburg (Germany) collected responses to a questionaire on virtues of a teacher. "This has been done at our School already and we have got some surprising results."

Kids from Australia, CSFR, Canada, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, and the USA opened the doors of the project's KIDCAFE and KIDS-ACT.

Sally Laughon (laughon@vtvm1.cc.vt.edu) volunteered to main- tain a data base of teachers and others involved in KIDS-92. The purpose of these files is to facilitate contacts as projects are developed.

New projects surfaced between classes in various countries. One of them was "The Summer School Computer Chat", which happened in early June between San Marino School in Bueno Park, CA, Kanto International Senior High School, Tokyo and Santa Maria Interna- tional School, Tokyo.

An edited transcript was published in KIDCAFE for everybody to enjoy. We learned that oishi means delicious in Japanese. Ohayo = Good Morning, arigato = Thank you, Hai = Yes, Iie = No.

From the Center of Informatics and Forecasting of Ministry of Culture and Education in Lithuania came exiting words of support.

In Japan, TWICS (Tokyo) and Aegis (Kyoto) made all KIDS-92 conferences available for their subscribers. In the US, KIDS-92 was hooked up to FrEdMail. We're working on getting our net more formally connected to FidoNet.

The Gallery of Computer Art was opened in July with one work created by 12 year old Sean Keithly from Des Moines, Iowa, USA. The files is ART001 (UUencoded) or ART001-B (binary). For more information about how to send or receive pieces of art, get the files ARTCAT and BINSTART from the KIDS-92 archives.

What we can do NOW

The new discussion forum for kids, KIDS-ACT, is slowly getting in place. It has the potential to become an important meeting place for those kids who want more than social talk. KIDS-ACT is where they can discuss the steps that they can take NOW to make the world a better place.

Kids in Norway, Canada and the United Kingdom discussed exiting plans for a global newspaper for kids. Issues like Garbage pickup/cleanup by kids, and online discussion of kids problems were also on the agenda.

We can hardly wait to see what happens once the kids discover the power of their new meeting place. Will it turn into a help line for kids? Will they focus on Third World problems, child molestation, environmental protection, racism, drugs and peer- pressure, or what?

To get a list of all available files in KIDS-92, send a message to LISTSERV@vm1.nodak.edu . In the TEXT of your message, write the command:


The resulting file will also give you a short explanation about how to retrieve individual files from our archives. If you have problems downloading files, please email Odd de Presno.

The KIDS-92 newsletter is an information bulletin for teachers, participants, sponsors, mediators, promoters, and others. Suggestions and contributions are invited. We plan to port the next issue of the KIDS-92 newsletter during the first week of October. But please don't wait until then to plan activities in your community! And be sure to write us if you want to get on the mailing list for KIDS-92!! Onward!

Editor/Project director: Odd de Presno
Mail address: Saltrod, Norway (Europe).
Telefax: +47 41 27111 Online addresses:
Internet: opresno@ulrik.uio.no>br> UUCP/EUnet: uunet!ulrik.uio.no!opresno
DASnet: [DEZNDP]opresno
S.H.S. BBS: SYSOP (Phone: +47 41 31378)

If you want to help out with KIDS-92, or participate, contact the editor, or one of the following persons:

Nancy Stefanik: MetaNet=stefanik, PeaceNet=nstefanik
AppleLink=x0447, TCN=tcn145
Internet: stefanik%tmn@uunet.uu.net
UUCP/EUnet: tmn!stefanik@uunet.uu.net
Fax: (202) 547-2079

Jonn Ord/SciNet: jonno@scinet.UUCP

You can also write to

KIDS-92, 4815 Saltrod, Norway or just sign up ...


From: Morten Flate Paulsen (814-865-5855), MFP101@PSUVM

I am writing to inform you about DEOSNEWS, a Bitnet/Internet distribution list for distance educators. DEOSNEWS has about 400 subscribers from 23 countries. As a subscriber, you will receive an article about once a week.

To subscribe to DEOSNEWS, just post the following command to LISTSERV@PSUVM or LISTSERV@PSUVM.PSU.EDU:


Back issues of DEOSNEWS can be retrieved by posting the command GET DEOSNEWS filename to LISTSERV@PSUVM, where filename is either LOG9104, LOG9105, or LOG9106.

LOG9104 comprises DEOSNEWS #1-4, LOG9105 comprises DEOSNEWS #5-6 and LOG9106 comprises DEOSNEWS #7-.

The following are the titles of the first articles posted in DEOSNEWS:

  1. The American Center for Study of Distance Education
  2. GO MECC! A Goal Oriented Method for Establishment of an Electronic College
  3. Audio-Conferencing in Graduate Education: A Case Study
  4. Abstracts from the American Journal of Distance Education 1987
  5. The ICDL Database for Distance Education
  6. Bibliography on Computer Mediated Communication in Distance Education
  7. Computer-Assisted Language Learning at a Distance: An International Survey
  8. Abstracts from the American Journal of Distance Education 1988
  9. China's Network of Radio and Television Universities #
  10. Computer-Mediated Communication and Distance Education around the World.
  11. New Accessions List, 1991, No. 2.
  12. Abstracts from the American Journal of Distance Education 1989
  13. Interview with the ICDE General Secretary

We are also interested in articles and information we could publish in DEOSNEWS.

Morten Flate Paulsen
The American Journal of Distance Education*


Announcements, Reviews and Requests

A. New List- CDROM in LAN Environment by Dan Lester, ALILESTE@IDBSU

A new list named CDROMLAN@IDBSU has begun serving those interested in using CDROM products in LAN environments.

This list will provide an exchange of information on all types of CDROM products, whether they contain indexes, abstracts, full text, statistics, graphics, or other data. It will also cover all types of LAN environments (Banyan, Starlan, Ethernet, Novell, etc.) on all types of hardware (Mac, IBM, Unix, clones, etc.) Producers of hardware, LAN software, CDROM products, and integrated CDROM LAN systems will be encouraged to participate in the discussions and to answer questions about their products.

The list is owned by Dan Lester, Associate University Librarian at Boise State University, Boise, Idaho, USA. The list will be unmoderated.

To join the list, send an interactive message or mail message to LISTSERV@IDBSU, following the same procedures you used to join the list on which you are reading this message. Questions may be addressed to Dan at the addresses below.

Dan Lester 1910 University Dr. Bitnet: ALILESTE@IDBSU
Library Boise, Idaho 83725 Internet:
Boise State University (208) 385-1234 ALILESTE@IDBSU.IDBSU.EDU

B. New List for Teachers of Japanese and Technology Specialists by tomita@vax001.kenyon.edu

Dear Networkers:

A new list for teachers of Japanese as well as for the professionals of instructional technology has just started under the following name.

Japanese Teachers and Instructional Technology List

JTIT-L is open to the public. It is located at the following addresses. To join JTIT-L, send the following text body to one of the addresses below. The actual keyboard input is indicated within [ ].
Bitnet Address: [listserv@psuvm.bitnet]
Internet Address: [listserv@psuvm.psu.edu]
Subject: (Leave this blank)
Txt.body: [ SUB JTIT-L Your Full Name]

Details to be sent upon request. Send the following subject line only to Tomita@va001.kenyon.edu

JTIT-L Details
Your support as well as comments and suggestions will be greatly appreciated.

Send inquiries to Tomita@vax001.Kenyon.edu

Hideo Tomita
Kenyon College, OH
(614) 427-5800

C. New On-Line News Service by Kim Smith SMITH@UMUC, Annenberg/CPB Project

NP-NEWS is an on-line news service that links you to a growing library of archived information about ideas and methods on using technology to open the college to distant learners. Every month NP-NEWS also provides you information on upcoming events, including regional workshops and computer conferencing. To subscriber to NP-NEWS


On INTERNET - (send a mail message to LISTSERV@UMUC.UMD.EDU) On the first line type - SUB NP-NEWS (your name)

Annenberg/CPB Project

D. New Electronic Networking Journal by Joe Ryan, JORYAN@SUVM

Announcing a New Journal


A new journal will be published in Fall, 1991: ELECTRONIC NETWORKING: RESEARCH, APPLICATIONS, AND POLICY, edited by Charles R. McClure with Associate Editors: Ann Bishop and Philip Doty and Resource Review Editor: Joe Ryan.

This cross-disciplinary journal will provide coverage of an evolving area of information technology and communication: the rapidly growing use of telecommunications networks to provide information services and products. The journal will publish papers that report research findings related to electronic networks, that identify and assess policy issues related to networking and that describe current and potential applications of electronic networking.

The purpose of the journal is to describe, evaluate, and foster understanding of the role and applications of electronic networks. Moreover, the journal intends to promote and encourage the successful use of electronic networks. The journal will be of interest to network users, managers, and policy makers in the academic, computer, communication, library, and government communities.

Volume 1 will consist of two issues published in August and November, 1991. Volume 2 and future volumes will consist of four issues to be published in February, May, August, and November. Initially the journal will appear in paper format. The editors and publisher are exploring options to move into an electronic format at a future date.

The editors welcome contributions on topics related to electronic networks such as:

Types of contributions may range from reports on research, assessments of policies and applications, or opinion essays. Papers will be reviewed by an Editorial Board and external experts as appropriate. A Resource Review section will critically evaluate the latest books journals, reports and networked information of interest to our readers.

Prospective contributors to the journal should contact

Charles R. McClure, Editor, (CMCCLURE@suvm.acs.syr.edu)
Ann Bishop, Associate Editor, (A71BISHO@suvm.acs.syr.edu)
Philip Doty, Associate Editor, (P71DOTYX@suvm.acs.syr.edu)
Joe Ryan, Resource Review Editor, (JORYAN@suvm.acs.syr.edu)

at the School of Information Studies
Syracuse University 4-206 Center for Science & Technology
Syracuse NY, 13244-4100
Phone: (315) 443-2911
Fax: (315) 443-5806

for additional information and guidelines for the submission of manuscripts.

Members of the editorial board include:

Martin Dillon, Director of Research, OCLC
Pamela Q. J. Andre, National Agriculture Library
Susan Estrada, Executive Director, CERFnet
Brian Kahin, Science Technology and Public Policy Program, Harvard University
Michael McGill, Ameritech Information Systems
Tracy LaQuey Parker, Computation Center, University of Texas
Carol Parkhurst, Asst. Univ. Librarian, University of Nevada, Reno
Henry H. Perritt, Jr., Professor of Law, Villanova University
Fred W. Weingarten, Executive Director, Computing Research Assoc.
Pat Molholt, Acting Dir., Resesselaer Polytechnic Inst. Library

The board, McClure, Bishop, Doty, and Ryan have been involved in research efforts related to national electronic networking. They have published widely on topics related to electronic networks and frequently speak on the topic at various professional meetings.

Personal subscriptions to the journal are $33 per year; institutional subscriptions are $75 per year; $15 additional for subscriptions outside the United States. Additional information regarding subscriptions can be obtained from Meckler Publishing Company, 1-800-635-5537 or via the internet (meckler@tigger.jvnc.net).

E. NativeNet: Announcing LISTSERV Archive From: Gary S. Trujillo, gst@gnosys.svle.ma.us

As of 6 June, there is now a LISTSERV site in operation which is archiving each article that passes through NativeNet, and feeding part of the mailing list. I am considering moving the entire list to the LISTSERV, in fact. This facility has been provided as a courtesy by the LISTSERV postmasters at Texas A&M University.

Contact Gary Trujillo for details.

F. Book Review of Distance Education: The Foundations of Effective Practice by John Verduin & Thomas Clark. Jossey Bass, San Francisco 1991. 279 pgs.
by Greg Kearsley, KEARSLEY@GWUVM

Here is a "mini" review of a new book I have just read that would probably be of interest to Online Journal readers.

Distance Education: The Foundations of Effective Practice

This new book focuses on distance education from the adult learning, higher education perspective. It begins by defining distance education and providing an overview of current efforts. It then reviews the research as it pertains to adult learners, discusses delivery systems, examines effectiveness and program quality, analyzes the theoretical basis of distance education, and finishes up with the administrative and organizational considerations. It includes an annotated bibliography of about 50 studies dealing with different delivery systems.

I think this is a useful book for researchers and students who are approaching distance ed from an adult learning perspective. Anyone interested in school applications won't find it very relevant, however.

It's also not very comprehensive when it comes to the distance ed programs or examples provided. But, it does give a good overview and you can certainly learn a good deal about distance education by reading it.

G. Job Announcement, Sydney, Australia From: Liz Parkinson lparkins@suna.mqcc.mq.oz.au

Materials Developer position (re-advertised)

National Distance Learning Project (funded by the Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs)

National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research (NCELTR)
Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

This is a full-time position at NCELTR, initially for 12 months, with the possibility of extension (up to twelve months). The appointment will be as a secondment (Visiting Fellow) or short-term renewable contract (Lecturer Year 4).

The occupant will work as part of a team (including one other Materials Developer, Curriculum Director, Content Editor, Support Personnel) to develop English language learning materials for immigrants in Distance Learning Programs within the Adult Migrant English Program (AMEP). A secondary objective of the Project is to research alternative media which may be applied to Distance Learning arrangements within the AMEP.

Selection Criteria

TESOL qualifications and experience in Adult ESL
Experience in Distance Education and / or Individualized Learning
Proven ability in Materials Development
Proven ability to work in a team and meet deadlines
Some word-processing skills

Interest in developments in the area of multi-media resources
Knowledge of production processes
Experience in desktop publishing

Further information may be obtained from the Project Manager. Applications, including a full curriculum vitae, the names and addresses of three referees and samples of recently developed materials should be forwarded by MONDAY 14 October to:
Liz Parkinson
Project Manager
Tel: (02) 805 7673
Fax: (02) 805 7849
Email: lparkins@suna.mqcc.mq.oz.au

H. Distance Education Query

From: Ken Willing, sr_willing@vaxa.mqcc.mq.oz.au
National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research
School of English and Linguistics
Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia 2109

I have been asked: Is there a basic reference source, on-line or otherwise, for information about graduate-level computer-mediated Distance Education opportunities (all fields) -- : short courses, certificate programs and degrees? I would appreciate any help.

Thanks very much.


DISTANCE EDitorial--Distance Education Planning
by Jason Ohler, JFJBO@Alaska

Last year, the Deans and Directors at the University of Alaska Southeast asked me to address them about basic issues in distance education planning. What follows are some excerpts of the hand out I prepared for them.



Nearly every aspect of schooling is affected when an institution adjusts for distance delivery. Three basic models can be helpful in framing your thinking for this adjustment. These are not arbitrary, and your solution may borrow aspects from more than one of them.

Model I- The Administrative Do-Nothing Model. This is more common than you might imagine. It is predicated on the belief that just as things get taken care of for face-to-face delivery because members of the educational community have an intrinsic understanding of what needs to be done, so will things be taken care of when delivering course work at a distance because members also have an intrinsic understanding of distance education.

This can be a disastrous philosophy. Distance ed is different. It is the first serious alternative to the factory model of education since the industrial revolution and requires adjustments in planning and facilitating.

However, the upside to this model is that it usually breeds a great deal of diversity of approaches to delivering distance education precisely because there is no real centralized authority. Thus, a grass roots movement can actually give you a lot of the basic info you need about what works or might work at your institution.

Model II- The All-Inclusive Distance Education Agency Model- This model reflects a centralized approach, in which a university agency creates its own coursework, hires its own teachers, and runs as a relatively autonomous unit within the University community. A Distance Education Agency would typically address the following aspects:

  • Admissions and Records
  • Library and Research Access
  • Book Store
  • Teacher Access
  • Advising
  • Collegial Access

Model III- The Distributed University Agency Model- This is a less centralized approach, in which each component of the existing university infrastructure takes on an added dimension to deal with distance delivery demands. The agency is then a combined student advocate/organizational body that keeps the distance ed part of each univ. component functioning smoothly.


There are some basic equations that can act as guidelines in this area. They are:

  1. . 2-for-1 Delivery- Delivering at a distance takes twice the preparation and energy as face to face delivery. The difference can be made up with extra people or a reduced work load. This is often independent of a face-to-face version of the course if it is running concurrently.

  2. 3-for-1 Development- If a teacher is developing all of the materials from scratch, it can take 3 times the time to develop distance ed materials, depending upon the materials. Writing a book or making videos are often necessary and extremely time consuming. On the other hand, if books or videos exist then this can reduce this ratio substantially.

  3. Minimum 1-to-1 techie-to-talkie. The teacher that students see on TV or on a computer conference is the tip of a huge iceberg. Below this tip are technicians and engineers that made it all possible. Teachers are there to teach, not make sound checks, test cords, and make sure software works. At least one technician needs to be available for set-up, and often more than that for delivery if using TV. Needless to say, these ratios are not cast in stone. In fact, I find that all three interact and impact one another. For example, the TV teacher who requires at least two techies to deliver instruction, might base the course on a text book that is already written. The computer conferencing teacher, who had to write a specific instruction book to deal with a particular system, might need only occasional technical help. The result: there is always a ratio of teaching time to instructional support time, the trick is discovering what it is in your particular situation. When you think about it, this is true for face to face teaching as well. But in distance education, it is amplified.


There are some basic decisions that need to be made about the timing of course delivery, such as:

  1. Live vs. asynchronous- Live is anything interactive such as audioconferencing or TV with talk-back capability. It often requires that a group of people congregate at the same time sometimes in the same place, much like a regular class. Sometimes the delivery is accessible via public TV, in which case people can watch from any site that receives the transmission.

    Asynchronous means that students do not need to "meet" at the same time, such as in computer conferencing. Students use a computer conference much like record-a-phone technology, leaving and picking up messages as their schedule permit.

  2. Scheduled vs. open entry/exit- Scheduled means that students need to start and finish within a time frame, whereas in an open entry/exit system they don't.

Well, there's a brief overview. It seemed to help our administrators and I hope it can be of use to you.


About the Journal, from the editor.


[What follows is an excerpt from the first issue of the Journal.]

This first issue will be primarily concerned with the Journal itself. Once we provide an idea of the Journal's identity and direction, we hope you will contribute to this rapidly growing field of education and communication.


We want short contributions, 4 screens maximum. Rather than trying to compete with a paper-based magazine which does a much better job of presenting long articles, we want contributions that present overview information. Based upon information gleaned in contributions, readers can directly contact the author for more details.


The issues that the Journal is concerned with fall into four basic content areas:

  1. Content Area #1- Distance Education

    The Journal is interested in distance education as the organized method of reaching geographically disadvantaged learners, whether K-12, post secondary, or general enrichment students. Areas of interest include:

    • delivery technologies,
    • pedagogy,
    • cross cultural issues implicit in wide area education delivery,
    • distance education projects that you are involved with,
    • announcements, workshops, or programs of study,
    • anything else regarding the theory and practice of distance education.

  2. Content Area #2- Distance Communications

    The Journal recognizes that education encompasses a broad area of experience and that distance education includes distance communications that fall outside the domain of formal learning. The Journal welcomes contributions that deal with serving people at a distance who aren't necessarily associated with a learning institution. The Journal welcomes information about, for examples:

    • public radio and television efforts to promote cultural awareness,
    • governmental efforts to inform a distant public about social issues,
    • or the many training programs run by private business to upgrade employee skills.

  3. Content Area #3- Telecommunications in Education

    Once the distance education infrastructure is solidly in place, local learners will want to tap into it, because they simply prefer learning in a decentralized setting or because they want to expand their learning opportunities and resources beyond those immediately available to them. This phenomenon, which we call 'bringing distance education home,' will grow in the coming years and we look forward to hearing from people about telecommunications in education, as a tool or a content area.

  4. Content Area #4- Cross Cultural Communication Efforts
    Particularly Between the US and the USSR

    The Journal is interested in projects concerned with overcoming cultural barriers through the use of electronic communication. The Journal particularly looks forward to contributions concerning:

    • efforts to improve electronic communication between the USSR and the US
    • international electronic conferences
    • cultural domination through the inappropriate use of media
    • the use of telecommunications to promote understanding of the human condition

To subscribe to The Online Journal of Distance Education and Communication, send the following command to LISTSERV@UWAVM :

SUB DISTED your_full_name

All contributions should be sent to JADIST@ALASKA

Any other questions about DISTED can be sent to:

Jason B. Ohler, Editor
Paul J. Coffin

Disclaimer: The above were the opinions of the individual contributors and in no way reflect the views of the University of Alaska.

End of the Online Journal of Distance Education & Communication