Volume #4, Issue #8

Date: March 1992

Jason Ohler, Director
Educational Technology Program
University of Alaska Southeast


In the industrial age, we go to school. In the information age, school can come to us. This is the message implicit in the media and movement of distance education.

Volume #4, Issue #8

Date: March 1992


Jason Ohler
Educational Technology Program Director
University of Alaska Southeast
11120 Glacier Highway
Juneau, Alaska 99801
Phone: 907-789-4538
Technical Coordinator
Paul J. Coffin
716 Taschereau
Ste-Therese, Quebec
J7E 4E1
Phone: 514-430-0995


  1. A Follow Up On An Italian Experiment on Distance Learning by Emilia Carolei, Frida Morelli and Daniele C. Struppa

  2. A View of Distance Education in Slovenia By Tomaz Borstnar, ID= Tomaz.Borstnar@IJS.AC.MAIL.YU

  3. Using Global Education Networks: Topics From the Internet by Sally Laughon, ID= laughon@vtvm1.cc.vt.edu and Stan Kulikowski II, ID= stankuli@UWF.bitnet

  4. Project IDEA- Creating a Distance Education System in Russia by Vladimir Kashitcin, ID= vladkash@guriev.public.su

  5. Public Broadcasting Encourages Individual and Community Involvement in Social Issues , by Randy Bretz, ID= ASAT001@UNLVM

  6. Overview of Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) by Brewster Kahle, Brewster@Think.com

  7. EASI (Equal Access to Software for Instruction) Does It - Computer Access for the Disabled by Norman Coombs, ID= NRCGSH@ritvax.isc.rit.ed

  8. An Overview of the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) by Mike Godwin, ID= godwin@eff.org

  9. Global Peace Gaming Edition by Anton Ljutic, ID= Anton@carleton.ca

  10. Announcements and Requests

    1. New Listserv - New Distance Education Listserv on BITNET Based in Chile Contact: Prof. Jorge Urbina Fuentes, ID= UNIDIS@USACHVM1.BITNET
    2. New Electronic Journal - Announcing an Electronic Journal about Electronic Journalism Contact: Ted Jennings, ID= ejournal@albnyvms.bitnet
    3. Conference- Teleteaching Conference in Trondheim, Norway Contact: teleteach@avh.unit.no
    4. Conference- International Distance Education and International Business Conference, in Las Vegas Contact: Morton Cotlar, ID= morton@UHUNIX.BITNET
    5. Conference- East-West Conference on Emerging Computer Technologies in Education, in Moscow Contact: eastwest@plb.icsti.su
    6. Conference- Literature, Computers and Writing, at NYIT Contact: Robert Royar, ID= R0MILL01@ULKYVX
    7. Conference- Communication for a New World, in Brazil Contact: Howard Frederick, hfrederick@igc.org
    8. Looking for- Distance Delivered Masters Degree Contact: JSN3@PSUVM.PSU.EDU
    9. Looking for- Information about Apprenticeship Models in Distance Education Contact: Jorge Urbina, UNIDIS@USACHVM1
    10. Looking for- Information about Native North Americans Use of Distance Education and Computers in Education Contact: Claudine VanEvery, ID=CVANEVERY@UTOROISE
    11. Looking for- Travelling from Saudi Arabia, Looking for Training Programs Contact: A. Sayegh, ID= F60C038@SAKSU00.BITNET

  11. DISTANCE EDitorial - Online Proxemics- Using the Theories of Edward T. Hall to Understand Behavior in Online Space

PLEASE NOTE: From Midway through the Distance Editoral to the end of this Chronical issue, the material has been lost.

  1. About the Chronicle


A Follow Up On "An Italian Experiment on Distance Learning"
by Emilia Carolei, Frida Morelli and Daniele C. Struppa

In January 1991, In this same Journal, we published [3] a short description of an innovative experiment that was being carried out in Southern Italy in the field of Distance and Multimedia Education training. Such an experiment could be considered as the culminating point of a cultural operation initiated almost ten years ago in Italy, whose theoretical bases were laid in a work edited by Lata and Keegan [2]. ,p.In [3] we described how CUD (the Consorzio per l'Universita' a Distanza) had designed a graduate course aimed at the creation of about 20 new Engineers for the use of Communication in Training ("Ingegneri per la Comunicazione Formativa"). In this last year we have received quite a few requests of more information on this program; it seems therefore of some interest to provide a follow-up report of the project. Our present analysis is based on our continuous interaction with the two groups of students who have been participating in this experiment.

Let us recall that the first batch of 17 students began the course in April 1990, and will finish by next May, when a final six-month specializing period will begin. This period will be mostly in the form of a stage at international research institutions or companies working in relevant fields.

The second batch, on the other hand, consist of 20 students who began the course in July 1991, and is currently in its first year. Throughout the program, instruction has focused on the practical aspects of the engineering process of multimedia and distance products. The students have been instructed on a great variety of subjects (computer science, psychology, communication, teaching methodologies, courseware and curricula designing, English). Most important, though, the students have been faced with specific problems and have been challenged to come up with innovative solutions. So far, we can safely claim that the results have been quite satisfactory.

One of the aims of the program was also to create a comprehensive "Educational Package" to be made available to different customers and adapted to their diverse needs. Some interest in purchasing the package has already been expressed by many companies operating in the multimedia area, and by many partners in CUD, while the CAM, at George Mason University, is exploring the possibility of creating a "distance education" version of this same course, through the use of e-mail (see [1], for a preliminary attempt). The package includes a series of textbooks, which have been written to complement in-class instruction, and which will form quite a large body of material on the topics.

The main problem we have faced during the erogation of the first course was that, at the beginning, the students had not a complete understanding of their function within the project itself and our institution later on. This, however, can be partly attributed to the fact that the notion of the "Engineer for the use of Communication in Training" is a new one, and no preconceived scheme was available to the students to help them in identifying themselves. We believe that the creation of such a mental scheme is one of the main successes of the course, and its value has been evident during the erogation of the second version of the course, where this identification problem has been completely overcome.

The nature of this journal does not allow us to provide more numerical details on the course (student breakdown according to ages, backgrounds, etc.), but a larger version of this paper exists in electronic form and can be requested to the second author.


  1. M.DeBlasi, A.Gentile, D.C.Struppa and S.Zoltek, An On-line course on Computer Architecture, to appear in Proceedings ICCAL'92.
  2. D.Keegan and F.Lata, L'Universita' a Distanza. Riflessioni e Proposte per un Nuovo Modello di Universita'. Seconda Edizione, Franco Angeli Editore, Milano, 1986.
  3. D.C.Struppa and J.Turtora, An Italian Experiment in the teaching of distance learning, On Line Journal of Distance Learning, January 1991.

Emilia Carolei
Responsabile Formazione CUD
Via Marconi 32
87030 Rende
(CS) Frida Morelli
and Daniele Struppa
Department of English and Center for the Applications of Mathematics
George Mason University
Fairfax, VA 22030


A View of Distance Education in Slovenia
By Tomaz Borstnar
ID= Tomaz.Borstnar@IJS.AC.MAIL.YU

Editor's note: Not long ago, I met Tomaz online. Soon after, the topic turned to distance education. I was curious about his perception of distance education and telecommunications in his country and asked him to talk about it. This was his response:
Distance education in Slovenia? Good question. Not so long ago television w/or radio was the only way to learn more. We have two TV houses - national TV Slovenia (2 channels) and KANAL A(1 channel). KANAL A is our first private owned TV house, which is also very young (less than a year!).

The problem was our previous socialistic constitution didn't permit private TV/radio stations and much more. Even today KANAL A has problems with national TV, because they're used to having a monopoly in our country. But this is a temporary problem and I'm optimistic. Both TV houses have education programs (approx. 4-5 hours per day and more on weekend days).

Satellite television is also becoming widespread.We watch foreign TV channels regularly like Austrian channel 1 and 2, MTV, RTL, SAT1, Sky Channel, Super Channel.

We have quite a big computer network called SLON, which is (currently) based on DECnet, because we have a lot of DEC's machines (VAXes). In 1992 our network will become part of Internet. Some of our machines are already on Internet and some are also in BITNET like node OLIMP (yuzgrb51.bitnet). This network is used mostly for academic research network, although it is not completely- we can't yet afford to have two separate networks.

It is very hard to get an account on any network machine, unless you are in university, or belong to some kind of institute or company. I got my account on Jozef Stefan Institute (IJS), although I don't regularly work there. To get an account on the university system (there are two branches- one in Ljubljana and other in Maribor), you must get an approval of a professor. Our network has installed NOTES (the VAX on-line conferencing system) which we use a LOT! We have 100+ different conferences about various fields of life - from computer specific like UNIX and SYSTEM to more everyday theme like CAT LOVERS, MOUNTAINS, SPEAKER'S CORNER, ... Everybody is free to participate in conferences. We are also connected to foreign networks with X.25 and leased lines, so we can communicate with the world. Our network is quite good (no big complaints), although it should be more publicly available.

Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) are also very common distance education tools in our country. More and more people buy modems with their computers to call our BBS systems and other services, like Videotex and libraries, to search databases. We have 13+ BBS systems working between 6 and 24 hours per day. We have two major BBS networks: KUBnet and ADRIAnet.

KUBnet is younger network(6 months), which has nodes mostly in Slovenia and Croatia. We have 20+ conferences netwide ranging from computer specific to culture, music, jokes, etc.

ADRIAnet is the oldest network (1989-1990) with nodes in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The Slovenian part of ADRIAnet became a FIDONET member few months ago. ADRIAnet has 100+ conferences, which are very specific. There are several conferences dealing with PCs. Access to conferences is free, except for FIDO conferences. You can learn a lot from reading messages in BBS conferences. The unwritten rule is: If you know something that is interesting to others, don't keep it for yourself! A lot of people regularly read foreign newspapers and magazines. You can buy the latest magazines like Time or Newsweek in every good shop!

I think we were lucky to be "neighbours" of non-socialistic countries like Austria and Italy, because we were always closer to western style of life in almost very aspect.

Please contact me if you want to know more.

Tomaz Borstnar
Jozef Stefan Institute (IJS)
ID= Tomaz.Borstnar@IJS.AC.MAIL.YU


Using Global Education Networks: Topics From the Internet
by Sally Laughon, ID= laughon@vtvm1.cc.vt.edu and
Stan Kulikowski II, ID= stankuli@UWF.bitnet

The Internet is the largest global computer network, serving as a pathway for over 5,000 subnetworks encompassing the entire planet. It links more than 300,000 computers and allows millions of users to send and receive data. Its daily traffic exceeds the daily output of all printing publishers combined.

The Internet was founded in 1987 when it predecessor, Arpanet, gridlocked from information overflow. Even though Internet data capacity is 3 times that of Arpanet, it will soon suffer the same fate if new network facilities are not constructed. Last year, the United States Congress considered funding for a National Research and Education Network (NREN). NREN will be a new network backbone capable of handling 2000 times the data load currently on Internet. NREN is expected to handle information needs into the year 2000. The formation of these networks from Arpanet to NREN will be the greatest channels of information ever constructed.

Electronic networks are as revolutionary as Johannes Gutenberg's invention of movable type 500 years ago. As the printing press improved transfer of information over handwriting, the implications included common access to daily news, education available for everyone, and even the world- wide rise of population-based governments. The growth of the global networks exceeds the improvements of printing press, radio, and television, since all of these media developed a central professional agency to process data before distribution. On the other hand, an ordinary home computer with a modem and access to a telephone line can tie into the global networks and become a distribution point for vast quantities of information.

For several years now, small groups of educators, teachers, and students have been using these channels to explore the exciting possibilities of global data exchange on a daily intimate basis. Telecommunications afford the opportunity to skip across international boundaries and remind us of our cultural inheritance unencumbered by personal, judgmental quirks. Computer networks provide an extraordinary opportunity for students. Information and messages sent electronically are immediate, unpredictable, personal and engaging. Students are fascinated by how quickly people respond to electronic mail: write today ... a reply from Australia or Central Europe arrives tomorrow.

In this laboratory presentation, we shall review and demonstrate how the cyberspace is being used for educational purposes. Sample material from international networking in educational topics has been collected and we will provide examples of student and teacher communications and educational technology.

Activities engendered by the networks span the curriculum from A to Z, art to zoology. Many begin online projects with simple pen-pal exchanges. As students from across the world explore their similarities and differences, common interests spark electronic connections. As notes are exchanged, tangential learning benefits both parties. Pen pal exchanges encourage frequent, relaxed and informal writing. Content and meaning are more important than correct syntax and structure. Indeed, important lessons in native language idioms and common expressions are clearly demonstrated as people write in a second language.

After personal, electronic mail exchanges, coordinated group curriculum activities evolve: sharing school newspaper articles, collaborating on book reviews, exchanging poetry and short stories, writing about each schools' uniqueness. Exchanges between schools move into history and social studies as students discuss the facts and geography of their locales; share information about the difference between weather and seasons in the Northern and Southern hemispheres; chat about cherished holiday traditions in each country.

AT&T provides guided curriculum projects in Learning Circles of schools subscribing to the service. The National Geographic Society provides a well known collaborative project where school children gather ground and rain water for acidity analysis, and pool their data in a collective data base. Another effective project involved a computer simulation of an imaginary global conflict. An international discussion group, KIDS-92, encourages students to answer questions such as " Who am I and what can I do to improve the future of the world?" This electronic group (physically based in North Dakota, USA, and coordinated from Norway) is for students ages 10 to 15 and has over 30 countries represented.

Math and science classes benefit from international connections, too. In math classes, students print a math challenge and write it on a corner of a blackboard. Solutions may require a formula, systematic combinations, trial and error, sketching the problem or "Just thinking about it," as one teenager explained. This problem solving activity encourages divergent thinking and reinforces the concept that there may be many valid solutions to a dilemma. Science enthusiasts track earthquake data from daily reports from SEISM-L@bingvbm.cc.binghamton.edu. As world maps are marked with earthquake locations, students realize that what lies beneath an ocean on a map is indeed "terra-firma." As the school year progresses, students recognize patterns; faults in the crust slowly emerge across the map as more pins are positioned.

Foreign language classes find new energy when writing to fellow students across the world. When students have an audience for their writing, more care is taken to write with precision and nuance of meaning. Moreover, tangential learning occurs when writing in a second language. The recipients learn quickly the abundance of eccentricities of the native tongue, often misunderstood by beginning language students. A genuine concern for helping each other ensues as students become more familiar with each other after each electronic exchange.

Beyond these direct applications for students, there are many discussions and reader lists formed for the use of network users. KIDSNET @vms.cis.pitt.edu (from Pennsylvania, USA) was formed to discuss issues related to elementary and secondary education on the Internet. Besides an adult-level discussion, there are pen pal introduction services for students.

On the other hand, EDTECH@ohstvma.bitnet (based at Ohio State and moderated from Michigan State) provides discussion of educational technology. ACSOFT@wuvmd.bitnet (at Washington University) focuses on use of academic software. JADIST@alaska.bitnet publishes an electronic Journal of Distance Education, about curriculum delivery into remote areas by telecommunications. JTIT-L@psuvm.bitnet (Pennsylvania again) recently formed Japanese Teachers of Instructional Technology to promote network protocols for global transmission of text in kanji characters among other issues. EDPOLYAN@asuacad.bitnet (Arizona State University) is concerned with educational policy analysis.

These are just a brief sampling of groups that communicate daily about educational concerns on the networks. By the time this document is printed, the cyberspace will have changed... many groups will conclude their topics and reside only in data archives, while others begin discussing new issues. The Internet is an electronic frontier. Many of the basic services are just now coagulating, often discovered by message probing into new places and listening to the traffic flow. There are thousands of discussion groups on the networks. Attempts have been made to establish a central directory. That task is difficult since information is obsolete almost immediately. Archive sites try to catch important portions of the data flow. Public domain repositories offer more software than can be systematically sampled and cataloged by personal effort. These are some of the challenges which face networkers while the global data channels are growing larger than any previous information system.

Sally Laughon, NorthCross School, 4254 Colonial Avenue Roanoke, Virginia 24014, ID= laughon@vtvm1.cc.vt.edu

Stan Kulikowski II, The University of West Florida, ERDC Pensacola, Florida 32514, ID= stankuli@UWF.bitnet


Project IDEA- Creating a Distance Education System in Russia
by Vladimir Kashitcin, ID= vladkash@guriev.public.su

I am Vladimir Kashitcin, an Senior Reader of Moscow Institute of Electronic Machinery (MIEM) and an Expert of Ministry of Science, Higher Education and Technology Policy of Russia. I am in the beginning stages of a research project to help create a viable system of distance education in Russia which is called Project Idea. The project is described below. Any input you have is welcome.

The Project IDEA

The project will be international, serve American students regardless of institutional affiliation, and provide students from the Russian Federation with access to institutions throughout the entire United States and other countries.

It would be Russian-American with a name such as the International Distance Education Association (IDEA).

      The project would have the following basic tasks:

    1. Provision of information to students from Russia and the USA regarding opportunities for distance education and research in the other countries;
    2. Advising students in the Russian Federation who wish to enter distance degree programs in the United States.
    3. Providing the possibilities of distance education (MS,BS and other degrees) for gifted students.
    4. Running national competitions for opportunities for study and research abroad;
    5. Assistance to American students studying or carrying out research in the Russian Federation;
    6. Assistance, where appropriate, in educational and research reforms (Continuous education for engineers for example).


    To realize first stage of the project I can organize the Coordination Center in Moscow with Internet address. This Center can communicate with some Center of Distance Education in USA or other countries and exchange programs, curriculums, seminar materials, etc. to provide the process of Distance Education of Russian students.

    The Center will be connected by e-mail with already created regional Centers of New Informational Technologies. There are up to 50 such CNITs, based on institutions and Universities which can directly communicate with the students of these institutions.


    There is at present no organization in United States nor in the Russian Federation that assists students without regard to institutional affiliation. This is unfortunate for the development of Russian science and education itself because gifted students who do not happen to be affiliated with a particular ministry or institution are artificially limited in their opportunities for research abroad. It is unfortunate for the development of world science as well, since foreign scholars have difficulty obtaining affiliation with institutions in the Russian Federation that are outside the particular ministry responsible for their programs.

    I envision this new organization as an independent association or institute, possibly under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Science, Higher Education, and Technology Policy of Russia; and the higher educational institutions of the USA (generally speaking I don't know which ones). It would be basically Russian-American with a name such as the International Distance Education Association (IDEA).

  4. PARTICIPATION Participating from the United States would be nationwide organizations like:
    • Global University in USA (GU/USA)
    • The Institute of International Education
    • The American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council
    • The National Science Foundation
    • The National Academy of Sciences
    • perhaps, the American Council of Teachers of Russian, ... or Councils.
    • International Center for Distance Learning (UK).
    Eventually the organization could include other countries, if desired.


    Ruble funding would come from the sponsoring Russian organizations, the RSFSR budget (it's rather difficult for the moment), funds and other sources, including private individuals.

    Dollar funding would come from the sponsoring American organizations, foundations, and other sources.

    (Ideally the proposed organization would have office and other space in Moscow with affiliate offices in major cities of the Urals, Siberia, the Far East, and elsewhere in the Russian Federation using the base of Centers of New Informational Technologies which are already created. There are up to 50 such CNITs, based on institutions and Universities. An office (or offices) in the United States is also highly desirable.)

    I mean that such projects will not need much funding, because the beginning infrastructure for information exchange is ready, in USA BITNET and other 'nets and in Russia - RELCOM, part of Internet.

Also, I am looking for the following:

  1. I would like to know something about possibility of contacts with the Benjamin Franklin Fellowships for graduate study in the United States that the United States Congress has now established for citizens of the Russian Federation.

  2. It's interesting to try find the possibilities of investment by the international or private Foundations,- like Hitachi Foundation in Washington, D.C. for their cross-cultural study with American and Soviet counterparts. So, I need the contacts !!!

  3. I'd think to contact Dr. Murray Turoff of the New Jersey Institute of Technology (originator of computer conferencing technology).

  4. If needed, the project can be discussed officially with Dr. Marat Alikovich Guriev, Deputy Chairman of the Ministry of Science, Higher Education and Technology Policy of Russia.

Thank for your time and I look forward to hearing from you.

Vladimir Kashitcin, Expert
Ministry of Science, Higher Education and Technology Policy of Russia vladkash@guriev.public.su


Public Broadcasting Encourages Individual and Community Involvement in Social Issues
contact Randy Bretz, ID= ASAT001@UNLVM

Public Broadcasting Encourages Individual and Community Involvement in Social Issues

By Roselle Kovitz, Public TV Outreach Alliance and Sallie Bodie, National Public Radio

For those who think public broadcasting's raison d'etre is simply quality programming, there are a whole host of other educational services public broadcasters offer that you may want to know about. One is community outreach. Public television, and more recently, public radio professionals have endeavored to raise awareness of important social issues, encourage broad-based discussion and community participation through broadcast and closed circuit programming, complementary print materials, computer services, activities, events and partnerships with educators and local service providers.

Public television began outreach activities more than a decade ago. Early campaigns focussed on such topics as alcohol and drug abuse and venereal disease. Hotlines and the dissemination of print materials provided viewers with answers to their questions and directed them to helpful resources. Broadcast television was the primary technology used for those early campaigns.

In recent years, public radio and television stations have become quite sophisticated in the area of outreach, assessing community needs, plugging into national campaigns where appropriate and/or developing local campaigns to serve their markets. Videoconferencing, closed circuit presentations and computer conferencing are now included as part of stations' outreach repertoire.

In 1986, the Public Television Outreach Alliance, a consortium of five public television stations and networks, funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, was developed and kicked off Project Literacy U.S. (PLUS), the first of many national outreach efforts packaged for local stations and promoted nationally. Other project topics have included: youth- at-risk, workplace literacy, child care, AIDS, mentoring, environmental issues and children, youth and families.

National Public Radio began its foray into outreach in 1990 with the Specials Projects. "The Class of 2000: The Prejudice Puzzle" kicked off the first of two week-long series in the fall of 1990, which combined reports on NPR's newsmagazines with a national outreach effort by public radio stations to schools, community groups and young listeners. The second series, "The Class of 2000: Family Stories" aired in the spring of 1991 and featured the perspectives of young people regarding a wide array of family issues. In September 1991, the third series, "The Great Divide: Affirmative Action in America" aired. It focussed on affirmative action and the controversies, dilemmas and questions raised over the last twenty years. Plans are underway for 1992 projects on education and health issues. In addition, the PTOA and NPR are collaborating on a national outreach campaign for the 1992 elections.

Both NPR and the PTOA develop complementary materials for each of the on-air campaigns. NPR published a teacher's guide for each of the Specials Projects including synopses of each news report, related discussion questions, classroom activities and resource lists of books and periodicals. A handbook for small businesses and community organizations outlining strategies for effective management of a culturally diverse workforce was developed and distributed for the affirmative action series. The PTOA develops camera ready print pieces including brochures, flyers, questionnaires, children's activity sheet and "A Parent's Guide to Public Television" for reproduction and distribution by local stations.

The following examples will give you an idea of the types of outreach campaigns stations have developed in conjunction with or in addition to the national campaigns:

Georgia Public Television has an ongoing statewide outreach campaign entitled "Together We Can Help" which has focussed on AIDS, the elderly, the environment and families. Joining with Peach State Public Radio, the two are offering an online resource service for their current project on families, in addition to programming and print materials. The online service includes: a directory of topic-related publications; a list of GPTV and/or public TV programs available for purchase; a directory of related resource organizations; and an open discussion center on topics related to family issues.

ALL-STARS, a joint WSIU/Carbondale, Illinois public radio and television family literacy campaign, focuses on the development of language skills in a creative context and experiential learning, using television, print and radio as springboards for library work and individually motivated reading exploring learning options in the local communities.

KPBS-TV/FM, San Diego is partnering with the Anti-Defamation League in an 18-month outreach project to combat ethnic bigotry. Plans for "A World of Difference" include study guides and audio-visual materials for in-school programs, radio and television programming and community outreach efforts. Programming and activities will feature documentation of the heritage of and prejudices toward a variety of ethnic groups in the San Diego area.

For more information, contact Roselle Kovitz, Public Television Outreach Alliance, 402/472-3611
or Sallie Bodie, National Public Radio, 202/822- 2844,


Overview of Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS)
by Brewster Kahle, Brewster@Think.com
Brewster Kahle
Project Leader
Thinking Machines Corporation
1010 El Camino Real
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Wide Area Information Servers 415-329-9300x228

Overview of Wide Area Information Servers

Brewster Kahle
December 1991

The Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) system is an electronic publishing system that helps end-users find unstructured information located on remote machines. It is composed of user interfaces, available for most machines, and server software. Started by Thinking Machines, this system is becoming a standard for information distribution in the internet environment. Since many components are available for free, please try the system!

What does WAIS do?

Users on different platforms can access personal, company, and published information from one interface. The information can be anything: text, pictures, voice, or formatted documents. Since a single computer-to-computer protocol is used, information can be stored anywhere on different types of machines. Anyone can use this system since it uses natural language questions to find relevant documents. Relevant documents can be fed back to a server to refine the search. This avoids complicated query languages and vendor specific systems. Successful searches can be automatically run to alert the user when new information becomes available.
How does WAIS work?
The servers take a users question and do their best to find relevant documents. The servers, at this point, do not "understand" the users English language question, rather they try to find documents that contain those words and phrases and ranks then based on heuristics. The user interfaces (clients) talk to the servers using an extension to a standard protocol Z39.50. Using a public standard allows vendors to compete with each other, while bypassing the usual proprietary protocol period that slows development. Thinking Machines is giving away an implementation of this standard to help vendors develop clients and servers.
What WAIS servers exist?
Even though the system is very new, there are already over 100 servers on the internet. Over 5000 people have used WAIS in 20 countries.

Thinking Machines operates a Connection Machine on the internet for free use. The databases it supports are some patents, a collection of molecular biology abstracts, a cookbook, and the CIA World Factbook.

MIT supports a poetry server with a great deal of classical and modern poetry.

Cosmic is serving descriptions of government software packages.

The Library of Congress has plans to make their catalogue available on the protocol.

Weather maps and forecasts are made available by Thinking Machines as a repackaging of existing information.

The "directory of servers" facility is operated by Thinking Machines so that new servers can be easily registered as either for-pay or for-free servers and users can find out about these services.

Dow Jones is putting a server on their own DowVision network. This server contains the Wall Street Journal, Barons, and 450 magazines. This will be a for-pay server.

How can I find out more about WAIS?
You can try a simple interface by Telnet to quake.think.com login wais.

FTP the free software from think.com in the /wais directory.

FTP a bibliography: /pub/wais/wais-discussion/bibliography.txt@quake.think.com

Contact Barbara Lincoln for more information, or Brewster Kahle the project leader.

Subscribe to a monthly biweekly mailing list on electronic publishing issues, and new releases; to subscribe send and email note to wais-discussion-request@think.com.

Barbara Lincoln (barbara@think.com) for WAIS information requests.

Brewster Kahle Thinking Machines Corporation
Brewster@Think.com 1010 El Camino Real
Project Leader Menlo Park, CA 94025
Wide Area Information Servers 415-329-9300


EASI (Equal Access to Software for Instruction) Does It- Computer Access for the Disabled
by Norman Coombs, ID= NRCGSH@ritvax.isc.rit.ed

Project EASI, Equal Access to Software for Instruction, is dedicated to providing information and awareness about the computer access needs of people with disabilities. EASI is a part of EDUCOM's Educational Uses of Information (EUIT) Program, Project EASI Provides information and guidance on campus applications of adaptive computer technology that are available for people with disabilities. Although EASI has a focus on higher education, its information is relevant to public schools and the business world. EASI's membership includes both professionals and disabled users from throughout the United States, Canada, and other countries.

Distance education is increasingly utilizing computer telecommunications. EASI can help such distance education programs mainstream students with disabilities into their programs. The opportunity to participate in online education can be useful and empowering to the handicapped. Traditional print delivery of distance learning often prevented the print handicapped from such courses, but electronic access to documents provides new opportunities for their inclusion. New federal legislation also mandates that schools and businesses seriously attempt to meet the needs of this segment of society as well.

EASI has developed a multi-unit workshop package designed to offer strategies for developing and enhancing adaptive computer technology services on college and university campuses. The Seminar Series can be presented in increments that last from one hour to two days, depending on what information is of interest to a particular campus. Presently there are eight modules available on adaptive computing topics such as:

-demographics of disabilities in the United States
-disability-related legislation
-computer access strategies
-adaptive computer applications as compensatory tools
-how to set up an effective computer lab
-designing practical service delivery systems
-how to plan for and implement an adaptive computer technology program
-educational and employment transitions.
EASI wants to help schools to better meet the needs of disabled students and staff. It is also eager to have new members join its ranks.

If you have questions or want to volunteer, you can contact EASI by email on bitnet at easi@educom and on internet at easi@educom.edu.


An Overview of the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
by Mike Godwin, ID= godwin@eff.org

Note: Originally appeared in The Quill- reprinted with author's permission

Imagine for a moment: You invoke the command at your computer keyboard, and after a short pause you hear a dialtone and a rapid series of tones coming from your modem. One or two rings later and the modem on the other end responds with high-pitched squeal. Your modem answers back with a similar squeal. The login message prompts you for your name and password, and soon you're connected.

But connected to what? It may be a hobbyist's bulletin-board system, a university's mainframe computer, or a commercial information service. But no matter what you're connected to, it's likely that you'll be spending at least part of your time online on the newest frontier for the exercise of First Amendment freedoms: the electronic frontier. Coming to grips with this frontier--and the stories and issues that it will generate--will be a major challenge for this generation of journalists.

But is this electronic frontier really a new frontier? After all, most professional journalists would be less than amazed the assertion that computer technology and the First Amendment are intimately linked. All urban newspapers, and an ever-increasing number of rural ones, rely on computers for word-processing and typesetting. Computers also mediate the transmission of wire-service stories to subscribing newspapers. Broadcast journalism has long relied on computers as well, for gathering news, for presenting it graphically, and for transmitting it by satellite. These trends have only accelerated in the last 15 years as the personal-computer industry has made this technology more and more affordable.

But the true First Amendment significance of the spread of computer technology has only just begun to register among journalists and nonjournalists alike. For all the influence of automation in the newsroom, many journalists (even broadcast journalists) still think primarily of words printed on paper when they hear the term "freedom of the press."

This is a mistake. Increasingly, Americans will be getting their information from computer-based communications--electronic bulletin boards, conferencing services, and networks--that differ significantly from both traditional print media and broadcast journalism. (For lack of a better term, let's call these collectively "online communications.") And because Americans will rely more and more on this third source of information, it is vital that we all work to ensure that First Amendment protections protect this new medium.

Freedom of the Press and the Computer Publisher

Of course, fighting for recognition of First Amendment protections for online communications may be an uphill battle--First Amendment arguments are not as popular as they used to be. Sure, journalism and journalists were held in high regard after the reporting of the Watergate scandal, but it's clear that this high-water mark has yet to be reached again. When I was a working journalist in the '80s I was constantly reminded by sources of the common assumption that a newspaper or magazine article wouldn't get things right, or would distort the facts to reflect a particular bias. More recently, opinion polls showed the public to be unsympathetic to media complaints about press-pool reporting in Saudi Arabia. The major newspapers, magazines, and television networks--often just components of still larger corporate organizations--are increasingly regarded by the man in the street as just another special interest. Invoking the First Amendment looks like special pleading.

Compare the media today with the printers and publishers in 18th-century America. John Peter Zenger put his own freedom on the line for what he published. His plight was one his fellow Americans could identify with. Do the heads of Time Warner or CBS or Gannett have the same concerns as Zenger? Face the same risks? And does the average American today have the same opportunity to be a publisher--to be heard--that Zenger had?

Not too long ago, the answer was no. We are all familiar with A.J. Liebling's famous observation: "Freedom of the press belongs to those who own one." And it was because those who "owned one" were increasingly large, inaccessible corporate entities that legal scholar Jerome Barron began arguing in the late 1960s that there was--or ought to be--an "emerging First Amendment right." This right was the right of the public to have access to media. The problem was that most people don't own a newspaper or radio station. To contribute to public debate, they may write a letter to the editor, or take part in a demonstration, or solicit signatures on a door-to-door petition drive. But the chances of their being heard are miniscule compared to those of John Chancellor or Abe Rosenthal or Michael Kinsley.

The world of computer communications, however, has turned out to be the great equalizer. Suddenly, everyone can become her own publisher, reporter, or editorialist. What's more, she has as good a chance of being heard as anyone else in the electronic community. The new computer-based forums for debate and information exchange are witnessing perhaps the greatest exercise of First Amendment freedoms this country has ever seen.

What's Different about the Electronic Frontier?

To recognize the First Amendment significance of this new medium we must first understand it. How does it work? How does it differ from the print and broadcast paradigms with which we are already familiar?

The easiest case to understand is the electronic bulletin-board system (BBS). The operator of a BBS typically dedicates a computer and one or more phone lines at his home or business for the use of a "virtual community" of users. Each user calls up the BBS and leaves public messages that can be read by all other users or private mail that can be read by a particular user or both. BBSs become forums--digital public houses, salons, and Hyde Park corners--for their users, and users with similar interests can associate with one another without being hindered by the accidents of geography.

A step up from the BBS in complexity is the conferencing system or information service. Like BBSs, these systems are typically based on a single computer or set of computers located in a particular geographic area. They differ in capacity: they have the capability of serving dozens, or hundreds, of users at the same time. Compuserve of Columbus, Ohio, and the WELL (Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link) of Sausalito, California are two of the better-known examples of such systems. Each is home to a lively set of communities of users located all across the country. Compuserve maintains a proprietary network (also used by the WELL) that enables users to dial in without racking up immense long-distance charges. Other services, such as Prodigy, maintain their own proprietary networks.

Still further up the scale in complexity is the distributed network, which is not located in a particular geographic area but is maintained and supported on a large number of computers located all over the country (or all over the world). The best-known example of a distributed network is the Internet, which directly connects thousands of computers at universities, government entities, and commercial and noncommercial organizations around the world with one another. Hundreds of other computers gain access to Internet-connected systems via dialup telephone lines. Together, this vast system of interconnected computers is often called "the Net," and its public conferencing system ("Usenet") and electronic-mail services have enabled hundreds of "virtual communities" of like-minded individuals to spring up. The immediacy of electronic mail and Usenet has already led to their supplanting of scientific journals as the major communicators of scientific discovery and research.

Computer networks have abolished the limits of geography for those who use them. In the next generation, expect to see a national public network system--the infrastructure on which private companies will build a range of information services and forums for expression and association.

What all these systems, from the smallest single-line BBS to the Internet, have in common is their reliance on text. This is an especially interesting development, since it has been argued that the power of visual media will continue to undermine the influence of the printed word. It's useful to note, however, that this July marks both the 10th anniversary of MTV and the 10th anniversary of the IBM personal computer. Even as cable television watchers have grown increasingly accustomed to fast, slick, and thrilling visual images, the burgeoning population of computer users have grown more adept at writing effectively to each other. The world of the networks is a true democracy: your influence is measured not by wealth or position, but by how well you write and reason.

This reliance on the printed word is, of course, something that the computer-based services share with traditional print media. But they differ from print media--and from broadcast media--in two very important ways. First, the means of communication are cheap enough for almost everyone to gain access: a desktop computer and a modem can be purchased now for a few hundred dollars (still another way in which the new medium is democratic).

The second difference follows from the first: while traditional print and broadcast media rely on a "one-to-many" model, computer-based communications of the new sort are "many-to-many." A newspaper is a typical "one-to-many" system: information gathering and reporting is supervised by hierarchy of editors and other management personnel who control the flow of copy and make numerous editorial judgments about what information to include or discard. Information tends to go in one direction only: from the editors to the readers.

Computer information services, in contrast, are "many-to-many" systems--in general, they rely on little or no hierarchical editing function. Instead, these services are a colloquy of different voices with different styles, with information flowing in multiple directions at once. The "filtering" function performed by newspaper editors is left to the readers, who are also contributors. The very distinction between reader and "reporter" is blurred.

This may sound like anarchy, but in practice it's more like a town- hall meeting, albeit one in which everyone has a chance to speak, no one is shouted down, and one has time to develop and explain one's ideas. Some systems, like Compuserve, rely on moderators to keep conferences on track, but their role is less that of the editor, who may make line-by-line changes of a writer's copy, than that of a discussion leader. At their best, these online conferences manifest a give-and-take that surpasses even that of face-to-face discussions. When we're face-to-face, the intimacy of physical proximity tends to be offset by inevitable starts, stops, and hesitations of oral conversation. Online, we each have the chance to write paragraphs rather than sentences--to develop arguments rather than interject comments.

The new medium also differs from broadcast media. It's a matter of current Constitutional law that FCC regulation of broadcasting is appropriate because of the purported "scarcity" of broadcast frequencies (NBC v. United States, 1943, and Red Lion Broadcasting v. FCC, 1969) and the "uniquely pervasive" nature of the broadcast medium (FCC v. Pacifica Foundation, 1978). But computer-based communication neither relies on "scarce" resources nor is so "pervasive" as to intrude upon the sensibilities of an unwary reader the way a broadcast might.

What Will the Issues Be?

We can learn an important lesson from the history of broadcast regulation: namely, that legislatures and the courts are reluctant to recognize in a new medium the same kind of protections they unhesitatingly grant to the traditional media with which they are already familiar. Nevertheless, there are strong arguments that online communications deserve such protections.

After all, the Supreme Court has given a fairly broad definition of the "the press" for the purposes of interpreting the First Amendment's Press Clause. The Court has held that "[t]he liberty of the press is not confined to newspapers and periodicals. It necessarily embraces pamphlets and leaflets.... The press in its historic connotation comprehends every sort of publication which affords a vehicle of information and opinion" (Lovell v. City of Griffin, 1938). Freedom of the press, says the Court, includes "the right of the lonely pamphleteer who uses carbon paper or a mimeograph as much as of the large metropolitan publisher who utilizes the latest photocomposition methods" (Branzburg v. Hayes, 1972).

Surely online communications are numbered among "every sort of publication which affords a vehicle of information and opinion." And the main difference between computer users and "the lonely pamphleteer" is that technology has made the former a lot less lonely.

Increasingly you'll be hearing stories about "regular folks" (as distinct from dedicated computer hobbyists) who use online communications as an integral part of their daily activities. Citizens' groups will rely on electronic forums to organize events, develop policies, and conduct meetings. Law enforcement, computer users, and the courts will grapple with the issues raised when the same computer that holds evidence subject to an authorized search or seizure is also a forum for First Amendment- protected expression and association.

And what happens to publishers' liability for defamation or obscenity on a system in which such material can be posted and read by others long before the system operators have any chance to review it? Not only aren't there easy answers to these questions, but not everyone has recognized that the questions are there!

There are, of course, hundreds of thousands of Americans who are already beginning the hard work of settling this frontier, investing tens of hours in learning arcane computer operating-system commands and telecommunication tricks, followed by hundreds of hours online. These people will be our first resources when we begin to figure out what kinds of online communities can function, and what kinds of laws and institutions we need to accommodate them. And, as journalists begin to recognize more and more the significance of events out on the electronic frontier, these people will be our guides in the new territory, pointing the way to the new social forms of the 21st century.

Mike Godwin is the staff counsel for the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF). The EFF was established to help "civilize the electronic frontier" to make the new computer media truly useful and beneficial to everyone rather than only to an elite, and to ensure that the new media are protected by our society's highest traditions of the free and open flow of information and communication.

Mike Godwin
EFF Staff Counsel
ID= godwin@eff.org
Write to
155 Second Street
Cambridge, MA 02141
or call 617-864-0665.


Global Peace Gaming Edition
by Anton Ljutic, ID= Anton@carleton.ca

Anton Ljutic
Champlain College
900 Riverside
St. Lambert, Quebec J4P 3P2
Phone: 514-672-7360 ext. 280
Fax: 514-672-9299
Internet: Anton@vax2.concordia.ca


GN/GPG/Vol. I, No.1

An Electronic Bulletin
GLOSAS/USA and Simulation in the Service of Society

Dear Readers of GLOSAS News:

As you might know, GLOSAS/USA stands for GLObal Systems Analysis and Simulation Association in the U.S.A. A division of GLOSAS/USA is concerned with global education. It is known as Global (electronic) University in the U.S.A., or GU/USA. Consequently, the subjects of peace gaming and simulation as well as global (electronic) education are of equal concern to this bulletin. However, they may not be of equal interest to our readers. This is why we wish to announce that we will divide our GLOSAS News into two sections: Global Education Edition and Global Peace Gaming Edition.

The Global Education Edition will continue appearing as on your Subject: lines. The Global Peace Gaming Edition will be clearly marked as . This will give you the control over which bulletin you wish to read and the flexibility to change your mind.

The Global Peace Gaming Edition will be mostly based on 'Simulation in the Service of Society' (S3) which appears as the special section of 'Simulation', the monthly journal of the Society of Computer Simulation. Following is an excerpt from the S3 section of the January, 1992 issue of 'Simulation'. The enclosed article promotes modeling, gaming and simulation in the interest of environmental protection and will be of interest to many of our readers.

We wish to thank the editors of S3 for their willingness to share their articles with us. We intend to carry them for as long as you, our readers, raise NO objections to their distribution by this means.

To unsubscribe from GN/GPG, please contact me or send the message UNSUBSCRIBE GLOSAS-L to:

I hope that you may find this electronic version of S3 (E-S3), as informative and interesting as I have. I would also like to take this opportunity to announce that GN/GE/II:1 will be appearing shortly. Please send articles, letters, comments, questions or requests to me.

If you would like to see a sample issue of our electronic magazine, "E- S3", covering selected topics about computer modeling and simulation, please contact me

Thank you

Anton Ljutic
Champlain College
900 Riverside
St. Lambert, Quebec J4P 3P2
Phone: 514-672-7360 ext. 280
Fax: 514-672-9299
Internet: Anton@vax2.concordia.ca

ITEM 10.

Announcements and Requests

A. New Listserv- Distance Education Listserv on BITNET Based in Chile


The University Distance Program (UNIDIS) at the University of Santiago (Chile), has started a discussion list to serve as a forum on distance education, EDISTA@USACHVM1.BITNET

New research findings, UNIDIS activities and announcements, and discussions on distance education will be the main topics of the list.

To sign up on the list, send a mail message with the content of the message in the form of:

SUBSCRIBE EDISTA "your_full_name"
To the following Bitnet address:
To send Contribution to the list via mail, use the following bitnet address:
These contributions will then be sent to everyone on the list.

To sign off of the list, send a message in the form of:

TEL. OFICINA : +56 +2 6813125
FAX : +56 +2 6811422

B. New Electronic Journal- Announcing an Electronic Journal about Electronic Journalism
Contact: Ted Jennings, Editor, Department of English, University
at Albany/SUNY, ID= ejournal@albnyvms.bitnet

_EJournal_ is a peer-reviewed, all-electronic, network distributed, serial publication.

We are particularly interested in theory and practice surrounding the creation, transmission, storage, interpretation, alteration and replication of electronic "text," broadly defined.

We are also interested in the social, psychological, literary, economic, pedagogical, philosophical and other ramifications of computer-mediated networks.

Our review process is anonymous, all-electronic, and consensual.

We prefer brief, authentic, lively essays to exhaustive technical reports.

Single-essay issues appear as often as submissions are affirmatively reviewed; there were four (free) distributions to subscribers in 1991.

There are two dozen consulting editors, in several disciplines, who review submissions. Members of _EJournal_'s advisory board are:

Stevan Harnad, Princeton University
Dick Lanham, University of California at Los Angeles
Ann Okerson, Association of Research Libraries
Joe Raben, City University of New York
Bob Scholes, Brown University
Harry Whitaker, University of Quebec at Montreal
To subscribe to _EJournal_, send a mail message to
containing as its only line the command:
subscribe ejrnl your_first_name your_last_name
Information about getting back issues will accompany the "Welcome" message sent to people who subscribe.

Please send submissions for editorial consideration to our "office" at:

Ted Jennings, Editor, Department of English, University at Albany/SUNY

C. Conference- Teleteaching Conference in Trondheim, Norway
Contact: teleteach@avh.unit.no

Teleteaching 93
E-mail: teleteach@avh.unit.no
International Conference and Exhibition
Trondheim, Norway
August 20 - 25 1993

Learning and working independent of time and distance

Welcome to Teleteaching 93, in Trondheim, Norway
August 20 - 25, 1993

Teleteaching 93

The main theme of Teleteaching 93 is the development and application of telecommunication techniques to enhance human knowledge and skills. The areas of application include education at primary, secondary and university levels, as well as training in various situations, particularly the workplace. The conference will be a forum for educators, politicians, managers of human resources and experts in the many technical fields of teleteaching.

What technology can do now and what it promises for the future are two aspects to consider. Experts are welcome to discuss the development of all techniques used in teleteaching, particularly purpose-built equipment, software, transmission and management systems. Educators will discuss how they have implemented new techniques, both successfully and unsuccessfully, in order to meet the learning needs of society. We hope that the discussions between politicians, managers, educators and technical experts will help to reduce the gap between teaching and learning requirements on the one hand and technical solutions on the other.

Technology is a tool to assist in the development of society. What are our goals and visions for the next century? The technology to be used will depend on the social and technical infrastructure in society. At Teleteaching 93 we will discuss the consequences of implementing various techniques in society at different economic, technological and social levels.


The participants at Teleteaching 93 will:

  • present the current state of the development in telecommunications used in education, training and distance working
  • demonstrate successful applications from different institutions and countries
  • debate the impact upon society of the new technologies
  • inform about initiatives, plans, support, regulations etc. by international organizations, governments and regional authorities
  • define the subject of teleteaching as one of the most important in education and training
  • debate the potential of distance working
  • discuss what is needed and what is possible.

We welcome participants and contributors from:

Industry and business:
  • Management
  • Education and training
  • Research and development
  • Multi-national companies as well as small and medium size enterprises
Educational sector
  • Primary school to university
  • Distance education
  • Open learning
Public sector
  • Decisionmakers
  • Politicians
  • Administrators

The following areas will be analysed:

Radio and TV broadcasting
The use of broadcast learning materials, combined with books and special printed materials is well established. The support of a tutorial network and distance learning centres is essential. We want to discuss the production and use of sound, picture and data for broadcasting. New forms of communication such as satellites will also be looked into.
Telecommunications enable two or more persons to communicate together simultaneously. The communication may be sound, picture or databased. The different types of communication may be used either separately or in combinations. User hardware may be computers, telephones or multi-media workstations or other networks. The same tutorial support might be given as that provided for broadcasting. Participants may discuss the communication, production and use of sound, pictures and data.
Storage and Searching
Databases may consist of text, graphics, sound, pictures and video which may be used on local workstations. Data communications make it possible to search for information in databases all over the world, and also to gain access to documents in libraries. Topics for discussion include the use of local and remote databases.
The local workstation
The user's local workstation makes it possible to communicate with people worldwide and to search for information from local and remote sources. The local workstation and its potential for communication and the use of multi-media software locally are important here.
Software and learning materials
Users of telecommunication facilities in distance learning are supported by various types of software (tools, generators, authoring systems, multi-media software etc.). The conference will be an opportunity to share information about courseware and production tools. We want to discuss both the production and the use of software.
Pedagogical methods
New learning and teaching methods are neccessary to take advantage of the new opportunities. New forms of assessment material and new tutorial methods will also be required.

An exhibition will be held in connection with the conference. Suppliers of equipment, software and other services will be invited to attend the conference to inform the delegates of possible solutions to their problems.


Demonstrations and presentations of interesting projects will take place during the conference. Some have already been selected, but please contact the organizers if you would like to present your project.


A special working group on distance learning, WG3.6 was established in 1985 by the IFIP TC3 and the first Teleteaching conference was organized in 1986 in Budapest; the second, Teleteaching 90, was held in Sydney together with the WCCE'90 (World Conference on Computers in Education, Sydney, Australia, July 1990). Both conferences were part of the work of IFIP's Technical Committee on Education (TC3). A special working group on distance learning was established in 1985. Teleteaching 93 in Norway will be the third conference in a young but rapidly expanding and highly important area.


NORWAY: Due to the long distances and scattered population in Norway, distance education and teleteaching are important to the infrastructure and merits the high priority it is given at all levels. The headquarters of the International Council for Distance Education (ICDE) is located in Oslo. Challenges facing the communication sector include bringing television to the Arctic and expanding communications in areas populated by the Sami minority and in communities situated along our rugged and deep fjords. Meeting these challenges has moved Norwegian Telecom to the forefront of technology.

Come and enjoy the Norwegian scenery, it's an experience to remember. We will be offering tours to the fjords, glaciers and land of the midnight sun.

TRONDHEIM: Trondheim is a technology and telecommunications center. It is also a center employing 4000 people at the University of Trondheim. The Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH) and the Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at NTH (SINTEF), are major institutions. Telecommunications is one of the areas of expertise.

Educational institutions in the city are actively involved in developing educational methods based on new technology, at primary, secondary and university levels. Being a technological center in Northern Europe, Trondheim is an experienced host of international conferences. Teleteaching 93 will be held at the campus of NTH within walking distance of the city center. Trondheim offers a great variety of accommodations, from student hostels to first class international hotels. Nestled in a fertile valley, Trondheim is one of Norway's major cities, but at the same time it has a cosy small- town feel to it. In 1997 the city will celebrate its 1000-year anniversary. Walking its streets is an encounter with history in pleasant surroundings.


IFIP: International Federation for Information Processing Technical Committee 3: Education Chairman: Peter Bollerslev, Denmark

International Programme Committee:

Jan WIBE, Norway - chairman
Gyozo KOVACS, Hungary - vice-chairman
Gordon DAVIES, United Kingdom - managing editor
Robert M. AIKEN, USA
Monique GRANDBASTIEN, France
Raymond MOREL, Switzerland
Iam CHAYA-NGAM, Thailand
Brian SAMWAYS, United Kingdom - editor
Erling SCHMIDT, Denmark
Antonio VAQUERO, Spain
Martial VIVET, France

Norwegian Advisory Committee:

Morten SOEBY

Norwegian Steering Committee:

Arvid STAUPE, chairman

Organizing committee:

Jan BREDEVEIEN, chairman
Morten Flate PAULSEN
Stein K. OEIE

Conference Secretariat:

Teleteaching 93
Norwegian Computer Society
POB. 6714 Rodeloekka
N-0503 Oslo

Tel: +47 2 370213
Fax: +47 2 354669
Email: teleteach@avh.unit.no


January/February 1992: Call for Papers and posters
October 10, 1992: Deadline for submission of full papers
(put a cross in appropriate case):

_____ receiving the final call for papers
_____ submitting a paper
_____ presenting a poster
_____ participating in a teleteaching project before the conference
_____ taking part in the exhibition
_____ other interest (please specify)

Institution/School/Company: ____________________________

Address: ____________________________________________

Tel: ______________________________

Fax: ______________________________


Please mail the coupon to:
Teleteaching 93
Norwegian Computer Society
POB. 6714 Rodelxkka
0503 Oslo

D. Conference- International Distance Education and International Business Conference, in Las Vegas
Contact: Morton Cotlar, ID= morton@UHUNIX.BITNET


Perhaps you are interested in joining a symposium at the annual meeting, in August 1992, of the Academy of Management at Las Vegas.

The topic will be: International Distance Education on International Business Issues.

If you are interested, please reply to:


By January 6, 1992 a definitive proposal shall go forth to the program planners. Thus, a quick response is needed from anyone who wishes to suggest a topic for inclusion in the symposium.

Some of the major topics to be included are: the applicability of FTP for delivery of multi-media tutorials, the benefits of course interaction via video-phone among people who have never met face-to-face, etc.

E.. Conference- East-West Conference on Emerging Computer Technologies in Education, in Moscow
Contact: eastwest@plb.icsti.su

East-West Conference on Emerging Computer Technologies in Education

April 6-9, 1992
(originally April 14-17, 1992)
Moscow, USSR


The aims of the East-West Conference on Emerging Computer Technologies in Education are to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas between Eastern and Western scientists and to present to the Soviet educational community the current state-of-the-art on the theory and practice of using emerging computer-based technology in education. The Technical Programme will include paper presentations, invited talks, posters, tutorials and demonstrations. An exhibition of software products is also anticipated.

The Conference is organised and sponsored by: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), International Centre for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI), and Soviet Association for Artificial Intelligence (SAAI). The Conference will take place in the ICSTI Building in Moscow.

Topics of Interest

The conference is designed to cover the following subfields of advanced research in the field of computers and education:

We invite submission of original research/development papers or review papers on topics in these subfields. We also invite tutorial papers on topics pertaining to the conference.

Submission of Papers and Posters

Submissions can be either research/development, review, or tutorial paper abstracts or research/development poster abstracts. Authors are requested to submit an extended English abstract (about 500 words) in electronic format (by E-mail or ordinary mail on DOS or UNIX "tar" diskette) to the Conference Secretary.

Each submission should contain the type of submission, the title, the name(s) of the author(s), complete address(es), electronic address(es), keywords and one or more of the conference subjects followed by the "500 words" abstract.

All submissions will be reviewed by the international program committee. Acceptance/rejection of paper submissions will be notified by January 15. Acceptance/rejection of poster submissions will be notified by February 10. Poster abstracts submitted before 10th January, 1992 will be considered in preference to late proposals.

The authors of accepted paper submissions will receive instructions concerning the style of presentation of their text (about 5000 words) for publication in the proceedings. The proceedings as well as the abstracts of accepted posters will be distributed at the conference. The best papers will be invited to be published in the Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education and the Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, published by AACE, and Simulation & Gaming: An International Journal, published by Sage Publications.

Accepted papers are presented in a 20-60 minute lecture-style format. Poster presenters are provided with poster space and are required to be available at their poster during designed time (about 2 hours). The authors of the accepted submissions are welcome also to prepare a video or computer demonstration related with the topic of presentation.

Important Dates

Paper Submissions Deadline: December 1, 1991)
Poster Submissions Deadline: January 15, 1992)
Paper Submissions Acceptance Notification: January 15, 1992)
Poster Submissions Acceptance Notification: February 15, 1992)
Receipt of Camera-Ready Papers: February 24, 1992 (originally March 1, 1992)

Program Committee Chair: ] Dmitry Pospelov (SAAI, USSR)

Organizing Committee Chair: Alexander Butrimenko (ICSTI, USSR)

Program Committee:

KSR Anjaneyulu (India)
David McArthur (USA)
Philip Barker (England)
Ehud Bar-On (Israel)
Ben du Boulay (England)
Peter Brusilovsky (Russia)
Sergey Christochevsky (Russia)
David Crookall (USA)
Alexey Dovgyallo (Ukraine)
Marc Eisenstadt (England)
Monique Grandbastien (France)
Jim Greer (Canada)
Roger Hartley (England)
Stephen Heppel (England)
Marlene Jones (Canada)
Greg Kearsley (USA)
Riichiro Mizoguchi (Japan)
Claus Moebus (Germany)
Leonard Rastrigin (Latvia)
Brian Reiser (USA)
Luigi Sarti (Italy)
Julita Vassileva (Bulgaria)
Boris Velichkovsky (Russia)
Radboud Winkels (The Netherlands)
Beverly Woolf (USA)

Conference Secretary: Peter Brusilovsky (Russia, USSR)

Conference Secretary addresses:

Dr. Peter Brusilovsky
East-West Conference on Emerging Computer Technologies in Education
International Centre for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI)
Kuusinen str. 21b, Moscow 125252, USSR
E-mail: eastwest@plb.icsti.su
Telex: 411925 MCNTI
FAX: +7 095 943 0089

Feedback message.

Please, fill in and return.

I am interested in: (please check)
Further information on East-West Conference ___
Attending ___
Submitting a paper ___
Submitting a poster ___
Organizing a demonstration ___
Exhibiting ___
My areas of interests are
Artificial Intelligence and Education ___
Educational Multi-Media and Hyper-Media ___
Learning Environments, Microworlds and Simulation ___


David Crookall
Editor: Simulation & Gaming: An International MA-TESOL Prgrm Journal (Sage)
Dir: Project IDEALS (FIPSE, DoE) English/Morgan
Univ of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0244, USA.
205-348-9494 -9173 (w)
205-752-0690 (h)
(44) 305-889-352 (UK)
crookall @ ua1vm.bitnet, ua1vm.ua.edu, igc.org
fax: 205-348-5298
For Pr.IDEALS: Chet Farmer, Frannie Goubet, Catherine Screiber-Jones
cfarmer1 @ ; fgoubet3 @ ; cschreib@ua1vm.bitnet

F. Conference- Literature, Computers and Writing Conference, at NYIT
Contact: Robert Royar, ID= R0MILL01@ULKYVX"


Forging Connections In The High School
And College English Classroom
April 3, 1992

The fifth-annual Computers and English Conference for high school and college teachers of writing Sponsored by the Program in English New York Institute of Technology and The Assembly on Computers in English (ACE) an NCTE Assembly

The 1992 conference on Literature, Computers and Writing explores the shared challenges facing high school and college teachers of English in the electronic classroom. There are two primary themes:

The conference features panel discussions led by high school and college teachers offering insight and pedagogical techniques for the English classroom as well as access to and training in electronic messaging via NYIT's computer system.

Conference Setting

The NYIT conference's morning sessions will be held at the beautiful de Seversky Conference Center, a Georgian mansion next to the college's Old Westbury campus. Included in the conference's price are a pre-conference and post-conference account on NYIT's networked computer system, coffee breaks, and a gourmet, buffet luncheon prepared by the professional de Seversky staff. Afternoon sessions will convene on the campus of the college at Harry Schure Hall, which offers computerized classrooms. The quiet Long Island setting is less than one hour from both the LaGuardia and Islip airports and just minutes from two Long Island Railroad stations.

Contact the English Department (see registration form) for information about housing.


De Seversky Conference Center

8:30: Coffee and Danish

Keynote Address

9:00: Keynote Address (Ballroom) by Dr. Fred Kemp, Texas Technological University, "Changing Teaching, Changing Writing"

Morning Sessions (running concurrently)

10:30: Developing Electronic Communities (Ballroom)
Linda Myers, Lehigh University, "Electronic Conferencing: Bridging Communities"

Barbara Hall and Sandra Walsh, Port Jefferson High School, "Assessing The Impact Of Teleconferencing Upon The Writing Process"

10:30: New Ways Of Seeing Text (Library)
Bonnie Duncan, Millersville University, "On-line Publication And The Collaborative Potential in Medieval Scholarship"

Steven Hale, DeKalb College, "All The News: Teaching Writing With USENET"

11:45: Lunch in the Dining Room of the de Seversky Conference Center

Harry Schure Hall

Afternoon Sessions (running concurrently)
1:15: An On-Line School-College Project (Distance Learning Center)
Marilyn Jody, Western Carolina University, and Marianne Saccardi, Fairfield-Westchester Reading Project, "Among School Children and Authors: Project Bookread"
1:15: Long-Distance Learning: East Meets West, North Meets South (Macintosh Linked Classroom)
Jim Greenlaw, University of British Columbia, "Pacific Rim E-Mail and Multicultural Literature"

Mark Harris, Jackson Community College, and Jeff Hooks, St. Petersburg Junior College, "Using Interchange: The Long-Distance Literary Classroom"

1:15: Software That Works With Writers (IBM Linked Classroom) Franklin Cacciutto, East Meadow High School, "The Computer And Lyric Form"

David Sewell, University of Rochester, "TACTfully Reading: Text Analysis Tools For Literature And Writing Classes"

2:30: Coffee/Soft Drinks (Harry Schure Lobby)

2:45: Overview and open discussion of the day's topics led by Dr. Fred Kemp

Registration for NYIT's Computers and Writing Conference (April 3, 1992)

Mail completed form with remittance ($35.00 for matriculated graduate students, $50.00 all others or $65.00 at the door) to
English Department
New York Institute of Technology
Old Westbury, NY 11568
(516) 686-7557

Make checks payable to English Department, NYIT

Name: _____________________________________________________________

School: _____________________________________________________________

Address: _____________________________________________________________


E-mail: _____________________________________________________________

Registration packets will be mailed to verified registrants before March 15 for submission to proceedings of 9th International Conference on Technology and Education; Paris, France; 16-20 Mar 1992; sponsored by UNESCO.

G. Conference- Communication for a New World Conference, in Brazil
Contact: Howard Frederick, hfrederick@igc.org

Cambio Conferencia AIERI ,p. Referente a mi pedido de distribuir el anuncio sobre la conferencia de la AIERI/IAMCR, por favor note el error de la fecha: 1992 en vez de 1991!

"Comunicacio'n para un Nuevo Mundo"
16 a 21 de Agosto de 1992, Guaruja', Sao^ Paulo, Brasil

Le agradezco mucho

Howard Frederick

H. Looking for- Distance Delivered Masters Degree

I'm sure this is not the first time this question has been posted but here it goes once again- Is there a listing of institutions that offer Masters programs through Distance Education? I am aware of Nova and a few others but I would like to know what options are available. Thanks in advance!

I. Looking for- Information about Apprenticeship Models in Distance Education

Contact: Jorge Urbina, UNIDIS@USACHVM1



No tengo informacion sobre los modelos racionales de Snook y de Nuthall. Alguno de los integrantes de la lista foro "Educacion a Distancia" (EDISTA@USACHVM1 ) o de los integrantes de los JOURNAL conoce donde puedo encontrar informacion sobre los modelos racionales O SOBRE OTROS MODELOS QUE SE USEN EN EL PROCESO DE ENSENANZA A DISTANCIA?

Muchas gracias
Jorge Urbina

I'm putting together a collection of apprenticeship models used in teaching at a distance. I have catalogued the models of Ausubel, Gagne, structural communication, Rothkopf and Skinner, and those which by its structure can be used in the process of education at a distance. Other models can be adjusted, such as those of Roger, Bruner, to be used in distance delivered courses. I don't have information on the rational models of Snook or Nuthall.

I would appreciate hearing from anyone who knows where I can find information on the rational models or on other models that are used in the process of teaching at a distance.

Thank you very much
Jorge Urbina

U N I D I S TEL. OFICINA +56 +2 6813125

J. Looking for- Information about Native North Americans Use of Distance Education and Computers in Education
Contact: Claudine VanEvery, ID=CVANEVERY@UTOROISE


My name is Claudine VanEvery and I am doing doctoral work at OISE (Ontario Institute for Studies in Education) at the University of Toronto.

I am native Canadian Iroquois from the Six Nations Reserve in southern Ontario, Canada. My background is a Bachelor's degree in Native Studies from Trent University, Bachelor of Education from Queen's University and a Master of Education in Curriculum (second language acquisition) from OISE.

For the past five years I have been a language consultant but am now back in the classroom teaching Language Arts and grade 7 science. I also teach in a native Classroom Assistant Program at Nipissing University in the summer. I am interested in distance education and how computers are used in the area. I am also interested in investigating the extent to which native communities are using distance education and computers.

Claudine VanEvery
BITNET: cvanevery@utoroise.bitnet

K. Looking for- Travelling from Saudi Arabia, Looking for Training Programs
Contact: A. Sayegh, ID= F60C038@SAKSU00.BITNET

Dear Readers:

I would like to undergo a 35-day training programme on the following topics, and I would appreciate it very much if you could tell if such a programme is offered by your institution or another institution you could recommend:

Preferred location is in the Atlanta, Georgia area. Please let me know if there are other places to post this request.

A. Sayegh
P.O. Box 25716
Riyadh, Postal Code 11476
Saudi Arabia

ITEM 11.

DISTANCE EDitorial- Online Proxemics- Using the Theories of Edward T. Hall
to Understand Behavior in Online Space

Note: Recently I had the opportunity to write about what I call "online proxemics"- how people use online space as a variable in communication. As my theoretical basis I used the work of Edward T. Hall, an anthropologist who was the first to formalize the theory of modern proxemics and to also propose the theory of High Context/Low Context culture, an important aspect of proxemics. What appears below are some excerpts from my report. Feel free to request the entire essay.

HIGH CONTEXT vs. LOW CONTEXT- High context vs. low context refers to the degree of information contained, or implicit, in the context, vs. how much is gleaned from explicit action or information. Context and information are inverse proportion. Where a context is lacking, information must be supplied to make up for it, and vice versa.

High context (HC) societies are those for whom a great deal of the meaning of communication resides in the context or assumptions of communication rather than in the deliberate transmission of information (Hall, 1974, p.18). Japanese, and Native American cultures are high context in this sense. Low context (LC) societies are just the opposite. Overt written or spoken information or activity is needed in order to bring full meaning to a situation. What Hall calls AE (American-European) culture is low context because its social norms are always evolving and diverging. The effect is that most of the elements of Hall's cultural inventory are being continually redefined. The more a society changes (disturbing the context of action and information), the more people require explicit information to provide meaning to experience and to avoid social chaos.

Some of Hall's most elaborate research in the area of (High Context/Low Context) HC/LC communication was conducted in the area of proxemics. Using detailed analyses of people's space, he tried to establish CIM (Context-information-meaning) ratios. His research is particularly significant given the fact that much of communication research up to that point had concentrated on the "easier" kind of communication, the explicit, much more observable low context communication rather than the often high context communication associated with of physical space (Hall, 1974, p.21).

In Hidden Dimension, Hall suggests a few organizing models to help understand the HC/LC implications of space. I am concerned here with two of them: micro-cultural space used and communication distance.

Micro- cultural proxemics has three aspects: fixed-feature, semi-fixed feature, and informal (Hall, 1969, p.101). These are the same aspects which dominate a checksheet of questions for the proxemic researcher called "Contrasting Cultural Analysis of Micro-space Checksheet" (Hall, 1974, p.34) While the specifics of the checksheet are very specific to physical space, the three divisions function extremely well as an organizing model for the understanding of virtual space.

Communication distance refers to four different kinds of distance employed in communication, each of which is highly contextual: intimate, private, social, and public. To the online uninitiated, the utility of proxemics in the study of the online world in which physical space is such an elusive component may not be immediately apparent. Yet, Hall's approach to culture as communication and space perception make it a natural. Space and distance in the virtual space of computer conferencing system fall into very similar categories. A table relating these concepts in actual and virtual space follows:

Actual Space- places Virtual Space- conferences
Arrangement 1. fixed 1. externally defined, hierarchically led
2. semi-fixed 2. externally defined, user-led
3. informal 3. intrinsically defined, user-led
Distance 1. intimate 1. electronic mail (or private messaging on a conferencing system)
2. private 2. private conferencing
3. social 3. public conferences
4. public 4. read only conferences
Each of these is examined in turn.


  1. Fixed space corresponds with conferences that are extrinsically defined and leader-oriented, or, hierarchical. Fixed physical spaces are those with high expectations of behavior, like a church. Because of the lack of physical fixtures online, computer conferences are inherently more malleable but achieve fixed natures through behavioral expectation and conference leadership. "Fixed" conferences include those which are created for a very specific purpose and heavily monitored or directed to enforce content and process, such as conferences used to support specific tasks or classes.

  2. Semi-fixed space corresponds to those conferences extrinsically defined yet intrinsically user-directed. Hall's example of semi-fixed space is that of movable furniture in a fixed room (ibid, p.108), allowing inhabitants to re-arrange or personalize the space they inhabit but only to a degree. A classroom may be "fixed" for the purpose of a history class. Yet, the difference in social dynamics in a classroom with desks arranged in a circle rather than in rows is well known to many teachers. Similarly, computer conferences created for a specific purpose, such as to discuss etymology (a very active conference on our PortaCom system at the University of Alaska) but in which participants are peer-related and encouraged to take the lead in pursuing the etymology of a particular word, are semi-fixed. There is more tolerance of tangents and more latitude in how the conference proceeds. Content is fixed but roles and process are fluid.

  3. Informal space corresponds to "open" conferences and to a certain extent private conference mail. Thus, many of the overt rules that guide other conferences in terms of content and roles are fluid. Most conferencing systems support an "open" conference in which just about any topic is permissible and in which people change roles freely. On PortaCom, this conference is called Open Forum, and is very open in terms of process and content.

The degree to which an online space is fixed can be viewed as a continuum, from completely fixed to completely fluid, in three respects: roles, content and process. Often how fixed a virtual space is usually depends greatly on the kind of leadership that is involved or, to put it in more anthropological terms, how strictly defined the roles of the participants are. Considering spatial/social arrangements provides useful perspective when trying to understand how a particular conference behaves. It helps reveal the overall parameters which define the bounds of permissible and/or expected behaviors. Without such parameters, understanding conference activity becomes largely a matter of subjective, psychological assessment.


  1. Intimate distance corresponds to personal electronic mail. Electronic mail usually but not necessarily occurs between two people, as opposed to conference communication which is seen by everyone within a conference. The similarities between it and Hall's concept of intimate distance are 1) the presence of another is impossible to ignore, 2) the expectation of response to an overture is very great, and 3) the assumption of privacy is often assumed (ibid, p.118).

  2. Personal distance corresponds to private conferences which are